A lexicon of Ājat he-Heloun

Many words have a stem used with all suffixes distinct from their unsuffixed form. The entries for such words contain a dot (.) and a pipe (|). All material before the pipe constitutes the unsuffixed form, and the suffixed form is obtained from there by replacing the material after the dot with the material after the pipe. For instance puň.ei|n 'turnip' is puňei unsuffixed, puňn- suffixed; du.|n 'mountain' is du, dun-. The same device is used for phonemically invariant stems subject to phonological processes: məi.s|z 'father' is best thought of as simply /məiz/.

The second column specifies the capital and caudal classes of each inflecting stem. In addition, if a vowel of the stem is subject to a-mutation, it will be underlined in the first column and the other form will appear in the second column, marked with > if the citation form is unmutated and < if it is mutated. So ij V:W >əi 'snow' is vocalic capital, consonantal weak caudal, unmutated in citation form, and forms əijka 'its snow', while kaj Cs:W <o 'tongue' is voiceless capital, consonantal weak caudal, mutated in citation form, and forms kojəi 'my tongue'. (Mutation cannot change register, so if an underlined vowel bears a register diacritic this isn't repeated, as a notational convenience.)

Adjectives are glossed with English adjectives. Separable p-verbs are indexed under their second part and displayed with a hyphen; this hyphen is not used in running romanised text.

This lexicon includes many derivations, including a certain number which are regular. They're just here for comprehensiveness. On the other hand not all derived words (especially ta- inceptives and tez- factitives) in use are included.

[[Among Ayāsthi borrowings there should be some that are essentially synonyms or register variants.]] [[Check for exceptional singulatives.]]

adi Va:iS n tree
adou.|n V:S n right hand, (pos.) right side: il-adou 'rightwards'
adu.|n Va:S adj pure (of substance), free of contamination; pure of spirit, virtuous; free from (with [[what case?]])
ahi adv up
aipi.|n V:S adj true, right, correct [backformation from maipi, taken as a negative]
aiṗ V:W adj green
aiṗke.s|z V:W <əi n garden
aiṗkə V:sW n sprout, shoot
t-aiṗkə Csa:sW v sprout, germinate
ait V:M v run [[derivs?]]
aitu.|n V:S adj underfed, (constantly) hungry, starving, emaciated
t-aitu.|n Csa:S v starve (intr)
Ājat V:S pn any language recognised as a descendant of Adāta (a generic name, with popular currency) [probably a confusion of several different developments of this name in Ayāsth]
aki Va:iS n egg
tez-aki Csa:iS v lay an egg
akrou.|n Va:W n enemy
alna Va:S v divide, split (tr); (nominalised) split, cleft
t-alna Csa:S v rupture, split, develop cracks (intr)
aľ Va:W >e n fire
tez-aľ Csa:W >e v cook
ij-aľ V:W >e v sit around the fire (for warmth)
ap V:W <o n ear
ij-ap V:W <o v listen
apij Va:S n berry
aplo Va:S n falling snow
āplo Va:S n (sgtv.) snowflake
apna Va:S n tears; (as adj) sad
tez-apna Csa:S v cry
āpna Va:S n (sgtv.) teardrop
apnerou.|n Va:W adj lamentable, pitiable, rueful
apsa V:S v build, create, make (of a physical thing)
apy p because (of) (precedes noun or verb phrases) [[treat in sketch]]
araži V:iW v exert one's influence on, manipulate [Ayāsthi àraʒeıeṅ 'push']
ařnem Va:W <a v breathe; live, be alive
āřnem Va:W <a n (sgtv.) a breath
ařnemrou.|n Va:S adj animated, vivacious
ařno Va:S n girl
at Va:W >e adj old, worn out or frail with age (see also atmoř)
at V:W <o n ashes; remnants, residue
t-at Csa:W <o v burn up (intr)
at Va:M >e n state, condition: šatoř a greeting to someone familiar, elliptical for [[what?]] ~'how are you?' [deverbal noun of aþe]
at Va:W >e n (only appears in toponyms) forest (for the general word see etti)
atenda V:S n crumbs ['bread remnants']
ātenda V:S n (sgtv.) crumb
atmo.ř|d Va:W >a adj old (especially of people) [for disambiguation from the other words at]
t-atmo.ř|d Csa:W >a v age, grow old
atsa V:S n fire-pit
atsa Va:S v float, hover
atsou.|n Va:W adj aroused, sexually excited, turned on
àu.|n Va:W >ou v say, talk, speak [[args?]], call s.o. s.t. (with accusative and predicative)
àvəi.|n V:S v drink (slightly more formal register than run q.v., though both are in common use) [Ayāsthi ġàvoıeṅ]
av.|p Va:S v please (used to render Eng. "like"); lift the spirits [[case?]]
àvi Va:iS v capture (of cities, territory, etc.)
avic Va:S adj important
avijeim adv counterclockwise
avpat Va:M >e adj pleasing; cheerful, uplifting
avti Va:iW n seeds (mass)
tez-avti Csa:iW v sow (seed), scatter, broadcast
āvti Va:iW n (sgtv.) seed
avtinda Va:S n grain, cereal
avu.|n Va:S n heath, moor
avum Va:S n offal, entrails, guts
oul-ávum V:S v gut, eviscerate, disembowel
āvumy Va:yW n (sgtv.) internal organ
azza V:S n city: nun et-šazza 'visit' (visitee dat) [oza + location suffix]
c.il|l Cs:S n barley
cīl Cs:W >əi n (sgtv.) barleycorn
cinci.|n Cs:W v twinkle (as the stars) [imitative]
cincik Cs:W n host of stars [derivation is somewhat unclear]
cīncik Cs:W n (sgtv.) star
cinciksa Cs:S n night sky (poetic)
cve.s|z Csa2:W <a v tie; tie up, form into a bundle; pull tight, cinch; link, attach by means of a lead etc.
cveskə Csa2:sW n leash, lead, chain, pull-cord
cỳmou.|n Cs:W n door [first component cognate to tsyt with irregular initial, second < mava]
ch.ì| ̀ Cs:S n knife [yet another not-really-regular reformation of divergent Mavakhalan unsuffixed and stem forms]
chrou.|n Cs2a:W adj final, unconditional, absolute, unarguable, clearly defined, bright-line [adjvsn. of 'knife']
čič Cs:W v itch (stative)
čyňjoli Cs:iW n pie, pastry
čhòm Cs2:W v eat [imitative]
čhòmrou.|n Cs2:S adj tasty
čhorou.|n Cs2:W adj rude, impudent [lit. 'ballsy' (of course != Eng. in connotations)]
čhy Cs2:yW n stone; testicle
čhyiva Cs2:S n altar [second < ôa]
dal conj but
da.ř|d Cva:W >e n muscle, brawn, sinew; (as adj) muscular [Kozado dado]
de.s|z Cva:W <a v fight in a disciplined way (as a duel); make war against [[derivs?]]
dij Cv:W >əi n finger
ij-dij V:W >əi v poke, touch (with the fingers)
do.ř|d Cv:W >a adv/n this year
dou.|n Cv:W n child (of some parents), offspring
du.|n Cv:W n mountain
dytyt i:S >o n head of the household [< ðô + tôt]
dyzi Cv:iS adj white
dəňha Cv:S v seek, look for
écaňi V:iW v corroborate, substantiate, support, back up [Ayāsthi eıtsáņeıeṅ 'be in favour of']
ēdai.|n Va:S >ei n prostitute [Kozado adaš] [[verbs?]]
efvu.|n V:W n heather (mass) ['moor grass']
ēfvu.|n V:W n (sgtv.) heather shrub
eh V:W <ə n bull, male bovine
oul-éh V:W <ə v drive livestock
èhai.|n Va:S >ei v arrange, lay out; prepare; adorn, decorate; pave (stones acc, road all)
èhainəi.s|z Va:M >e n pavement; floor
ehsa V:S n pen for livestock
èim Va:W <ai adj sick [negative of ]
eimpu.|n Cs:W n day, 24 hour period [< 'turning round']
eimy V:yS adj loose, unbound, free (of motion), on the lam
t-eimy Csa:yS v get loose, escape
tez-eimy Csa:yS v set free
ein adv down
ein V:W v grow (a particular crop), keep (a particular species of animal)
einrou.|n V:S adj domestic, cultivable
einta V:S v surmise, suspect, believe on partial evidence, intuit [[derivs?]]
einza V:S n field, plot
einzep V:W <a v strike, hit, deal a blow to
eiň V:W n hair (mass)
ēiňi V:iS n (sgtv.) strand of hair
èitə V:sW adj hot [base < E'át eiz 'bake']
t-èitə Csa:sW v get hot, heat up (intr)
tez-èitə Csa:sW v heat (tr)
ej adna somewhat, kind of, -ish, in a vague or nonstandard sense; (with expressions of quantity) about, approximately (also found as a suffix)
éjo.|n V:S n nobleman [Ayāsthi eıjó]
elaňi V:iW n flood, (generally) surfeit (of anything) [Ayāsthi èılaņeıeṅ 'flood', a verb]
ēlaňi V:iW n last straw, step too far, what finally does s.o. in or drives them out or enrages them or ...
ep Va:S n (pos.) area far from: ouv-ép 'far (from)'
è.ř|r Va:W <a adj strange; random, arbitrary; capricious, following whim
eř.|řə V:sW <əi v bake, roast
eřza Va:S n vomit
tez-eřza Csa:S v vomit
et Va:W <a v/s stop; die; fall over (intr) [ata absorbing senses from the homophonous ] [[certainly an auxiliary; add to the s-verb list]] [[surely more derivs]]
tez-et Va:W <a v stop (tr); interfere with, get in the way of; knock over, rase; cut down, kill
etti Va:iW n forest (see at 4) [+ 'tree']
ev Va:W <a v offend or transgress against one's superiors (superiors dat), (wrt a god) sin (also nominalisation)
èvau.|n Va:W >ou v talk back (to dat), sass
evro Va:S n bark (of a tree)
ezzə Va:sW v form, shape, mould, (of dough) knead
ezzəi.s|z Va:M >e n dough
fář Csa:W >e v tremble, quiver [?]
fašša Csa:S n screen used to partition a room ['place to undress']
faz.ys|s Csa:S v undress, disrobe, (tr) doff, take off [stem reformed to be syncopating]
fo Cs:S n shit [initial seemingly intensive]
hac.|cə Csa:sW n garlic
hāc.|cə Csa:sW n (sgtv.) clove of garlic
hahsa Cs:S adj broken
t-hahsa Cs2a:S adj break (intr)
tec-hahsa Csa:S adj break (tr)
haij Cs:M n water
hāij Cs:M n (sgtv.) drop of water
haiřnəi.s|z Cs:M >e n oil (especially of the olive): apij zy-haiřnəis 'olive'
haiřnəskə Cs:sW n olive
hap Cs:W <o n earwax ['ear shit' < x(o) + opa]
hāpša Csa:S n generous or heaping amount, large serving [Kozado hapheža]
hařza Cs:S n winter pasture, valley land
hau.|n Csa:W adv/n yesterday [includes the distal demonstrative xa]
hausij Csa:S adv/n the day before yesterday
hepva Csa:S v help
hepverou.|n Csa:W adj desperate
het Csa:W <a n material, substance, stuff; fuel, food, resource, consumed material; (pos.) state of being composed of: nə-het '(made) of'
ij-het V:W <a v consume, use up
sau-čhēt Csa:W <a v receive hospitably, offer food and lodging to, take in
hetpun Csa:W n morsel, snack
hetrou.|n Csa:S adj well off, with adequate access to necessities of life
hetti Csa:iW n wood [second = adi]
tec-hetti Csa:iW v chop firewood
hev Csa:W >a (not used independently)
tec-hev Csa:W >a v soak, submerge, drown (tr)
hevza Csa:S n pool, pond, water-filled ditch or depression
hīju.|n Cs:S >ou adj mean, cruel, uncaring ['liver-rotten']
hijza Cs:S adj senile, doddering ['mind-rotten', second component < deverbal n. of jaza]
hiku.|n Cs:S n brawl, fracas, rowdy fight; violence; disorder, trouble, disturbance; unrest, resistance (as of a conquered people); (as adj) rowdy, loutish, violent, troublesome, resisting
t-hiku.|n Cs2a:S v come to blows, escalate to a fight
tec-hiku.|n Csa:S v brawl, fight in a disorderly way
hikurou.|n Cs:W adj provocative, "fightin'" (as words)
hi.ř|d Cs:W >əi n hare
hiřkhə adv still, yet [< axêrʼ-xexe 'as far as that', with irregular stress]
hiřza Cs:S n form, shallow depression in the ground
hjeim Cs2:M v decide [[case?]]
hjéinə N:sW adj lucky [concatenating the former independent and stem forms, reduplicatively]
hje.ř|r Cs2a:W <a n flock, swarm, crowd; bunch (of), a lot (of) (also a quantifier): nə-hjeř '(acting) together', et-hjeř '(coming) together'
hjiřla Cs2:S n book
hjiřle.ř|r Cs2:W <a n library
hoha Cs:S n cow-pie, dry animal excrement; (general term of derogation for people) [in sense 1 < xo + exa; sense 2 by influence of hoxo]
hot Cs:W >a n infestation of lice or (by extension) other parasitic insects
hōt Cs:W >a n (sgtv.) louse [Kozado hoth; reinterpreted as a singulative]
hou.|n Csa:W (not used independently)
tec-hou.|n Csa:W v conceal (a weapon)
ij-hou.|n V:W v attack with a concealed weapon
hu.|n Cs:W adj high, deep, tall (in extent)
hù.|n Cs:W >ou n left hand, (pos.) left side: il-hù 'leftwards'
hùv Cs:W v shove, push [imitative]
huvpə Cs:sW adj high, far above the ground (in position) [second < ape]
hydu.|n Cs:S n mountain pass [+ 'mountain']
hyru.|n Cs:S n steppe
həisyn.|d Cs:S n woolen overcoat
həitə Cs:sW n rot
tec-həitə Csa:sW v rot
ic i:W adj black
ih V:M >ə v clean
ij V:W >əi n snow on the ground
ìjau.|n V:S >ou n man, male person
ik V:W n domestic cat [Yād ik]
iltijei adna rather, somewhat, moderately ['towards being']
ily V:yS n flower
īly V:yS n (sgtv.) petal
i.m|nz PN:S adj late [from the Mavakhalan stem form]
tez-i.m|nz Csa:S v delay, postpone, put off
inda PNa:S n (loaf of) bread (a count noun)
oul-índa V:S v dine, partake of a meal
inde.s|z PNa:W <a n dining room, dining hall
īnsa V:S n task or conduct adopted on behalf of one dying (possibly by their request), testament, (especially) vow to avenge s.o. killed [[usual derivs]]
inzok PN:W >a n party, social gathering
tez-inzok Csa:W >a v hold a party
iňksu.|n PN:W n ~bread pudding; a k. of fungus [mʼg- + zǫ]
iňža V:S v watch, study, stare at, fixate on [Kozado iñeža]
i V:W >ə n curds; set gelatin; varnish, resinous cement; (generally) any hardened or solidified substance
t-i Csa:W >ə v harden, solidify
iṗsera V:S n frost
iř V:W >əi v unmake, take down or apart, disassemble; break down, erode, cause to undergo attrition (tr)
itijo V:S n bough, branch (of a tree) [Kozado iþio]
iv V:W >əi n pause, break, respite
tez-iv Csa:W >əi v take a break
ivnou.|n V:W n recovery, convalescence (from sickness or injury)
tez-ivnou.|n Csa:W v recover, convalesce, get better
izy i:yS n night
jah adv (antibenefactive: the speaker doesn't approve of this state of affairs)
jal adna very
jat ja:M >e v cut, slice [[derivs?]]
jāt ja:M >e n (sgtv.) notch, indentation
jāu.|n ja:W >ou n (cutting) edge, blade; edge, margin, verge, border, periphery [[verbs etc.]]
jāuze.s|z ja:W <a n plough: jāuzes ṗei harrow
jeim V:W v sew
jejtə j:sW adj amusing [< jəij]
jeřřat ja:W >e v read the mind of [[case?]], use telepathy ['mind-hear']
je.s|z ja:W <a v ponder, cogitate, think about (theme ccst)
jet ja:W <a v sleep; dwell, reside (in) (orig. a structure, now also a city or country &c); (in sāu middle) accommodate [[derivs?]]
jídij Cv:S >əi n pocket-knife
jim j:W >ə n bump, small protuberance
jimpi j:iW n horn ['peak' + topi *'horn'; irregular cluster reduction probably for distancing from the now-dominant sense of topi]
jimjy j:yW n goosebumps
ji.ř|r j:W >əi n sausage
ji.tei|řnə j:sW n sea
joli j:iS adj full; (modifying an adjunct) fully, extremely
t-joli Cs2a:iS adj fill (intr)
tez-joli Csa:iS adj fill (tr)
jōliju.|n j:W >ou n trust, confidence; (as adj) trusting; trustworthy ['liver-full']
jouk j:W n business [desingulative backformation]
jōuk j:W n (sgtv.) transaction, deal [reborrowing from late Æðadĕ]
tez-jōuk Csa:W v do business with, trade with [[case?]]
jōuro.|n j:S adj passionate, red-blooded
jū.|n j:W >ou n liver; (metaphorical) heart, seat of the emotions
oul-jú.|n V:W >ou v enrapture, steal the heart of, win the affection of
jùt adv so, consequently, for this reason
jy.ř|r j:W >o adj mature, longstanding, old and respected, venerable
jəij j:W >e v laugh
jəimľa j:S n teat, breast [geminate simplified]
jəiňhyt j:W >o n news, information [note the parallel in Æðadĕ]
jə́itə Cv:sW adj sharp; spicy-hot [adjvsn. of 'knife']
kait Cs:W n sweat
tes-kait Csa:W v sweat
kaj Cs:W <o n tongue; poetic form, literary style, genre; dialect, language, speech variety
tes-kaj Csa:W <o v be proficient with (a poetic form or language)
ij-kaj V:W <o v use, be in (a poetic form or language)
kal Cs:S n (pos.) vicinity, area around: u-kál 'near'
kal Cs:W <o adj innocent, naïve, not knowing any better
kālahah Cs:S n borders [Ayāsthi cálahaċ, borrowing a 3sg possessed form]
kātyt Csa:S >o n neighbour
kātytra Csa:S n neighbourhood (in the narrow sense)
keiməi.s|z Cs:M >e n body of knowledge, science, study (of s.t.); (in names of particular sciences, always phrasally): keiməis z-afəijkə 'zoology', keiməis z-afotsaiř 'history', etc.
kek Cs:W >ə v shoot (tr), eject; use profanity (against all); make an oath [[case?]] [[derivs?]]
keksəilu.|n Cs:S v hunt
kenza Cs:S v ask, inquire, request
kep Csa:W <a adv/n last year
kic Cs:W >əi adj scary, fearsome
kme.s|z Csa2:W <a n sutures, stitches
kory Cs:yS n friend
t-kory Cs2a:yS v befriend [[case?]]
koryvat Cs:M >e n friendly
kótəi . (optative) [an optative form of ot]
kte.s|z Cs2a:W <a v steal
ktezvoti Cs2a:iS n mouse ['seed-stealing']
kəijjah Cs:W <o v follow ['walk behind', second < joxa 'backward' in the sense 'in back of']
kəilkə Cs:sW n written records
kə̄ilkə Cs:sW n (sgtv.) record of a single fact or transaction, clause, sentence, line (of poetry)
tes-kəilkə Csa:sW v keep a record of, write (down)
kəjau.|n Cs:S >ou n leg [kêja-v, with the lost nomen agentis suffix]
khā.ř|d Cs2:W n footpath, narrow way [Yād kād, or a source akin to it]
khāřtə Cs2:sW adj narrow
khin Cs2:S n fault, responsibility for a bad situation; failing, weakness of character, vice; (as adj) responsible for; tempted to (a vice) [[case?]] [extracted from the gerund of zôk]
tes-khin Csa:S v take responsibility for (a bad situation)
sau-khīn Csa:S v blame (person blamed dat) [[case?]]
lāi.|n Cva:W >ei adj not rotten, still good (of food); ruddy (of complexion); fair (of weather)
lāiju.|n Cva:S >ou adj kind, warm-hearted, caring ['liver-healthy']
Lāpi Cv:iS pn Peilaš, the continent [the register suggests Ayāsthi influence]
lézafaži Cv:iS n picture [Ayāsthi lezāfàʒeıeṅ 'draw']
lejou.|n Cv:S n skill which one spends time developing, technique, discipline, craft, art; (as adj) skillful, proficient
t-lejou.|n Cs2a:S v practice (a skill) [[case?]]
lekarou.|n Cva:S n enemy territory, hostile country
leř adv (concessive: the speaker is conceding a point by saying this)
leřmy Cv:yW n country, city-state [< la + ðamô]
lézafaži Cv:iS n picture [Ayāsthi lezāfàʒeıeṅ 'draw']
tez-lézafaži Csa:iS v draw (a picture)
líf.ař|ř Cv:S n group of aspens [first < 'tree', from a variety where d becomes l]
līf.ař|ř Cv:S n (sgtv.) aspen (tree)
lijmy Cv:yW n bird [second < 'free', calquing Kozado]
lodaitu.|n Cv:W n famine
lo.ř|d Cv:W >a n year
lot Cv:M >a v punish, discipline
loun ia:W n mould, fungus, rot, decay (especially on structures or items of manufacture) [this word had exceptional shortening somewhere along the way]
lóžeřřat Cv:M >e adj priestly, clerical, ritual, of or regulated by a formal religious institution [Ayāsthi lōʒèrr plus native adjectiviser]
lunza Cv:S v pay one's last respects; (nominalised) ~wake
lyřřa Cv:S adj righteous, moral, conscientious, doing the right thing; virtuous, good
ləij Cv:W >e v/s finish (at its natural endpoint)
ləil Cv:W <i v flow, run (of a watercourse)
ləi.s|z Cv:W <i n sky ['bird place']
oul-lə́i.s|z V:W <i v rise, ascend
tez-ləi.s|z Csa:W <i v raise, lift
ləispe.s|z Cv:W <a n emblem, symbol, sign; battle standard
ləizi Cv:iS v utter, pronounce, say (typically of one or a few words)
ləizum Cv:W n joke, play on words
lə́k Cv:W >e n cheese [< an irregular variant of zuleġ]
ľài.|n Cv:W n word [E'át ljazh]
ľiľ conj nor, not ... and not ...; (preceding a single argument) not even
ma.|n Na:W >e adv/n today
Na:S adj healthy [deverbal noun of źma]
maipi.|n N:S adj false, wrong, incorrect
mel N:W <a v shine
melmə j:sW n planet [second < 'journey']
meľ N:W <a v suckle, nurse
mè.ř|r Na:W <a adj just, fair; regular, predictable [negative of èř]
me.š|ž N:W <əi v spurn, rebuff, give the cold shoulder to [Kozado meža]
met N:W <a v/s know (a fact, or how to do something)
métrou.|n Na:S adj poor, hard up [negative]
mev Na:W <a n pair of lips; person from among a population (household, city, nation, military unit, ...) (this sense mostly used in counting)
oul-mév V:W <a v interrupt (the speech of)
mēv Na:W <a n (sgtv.) lip
mi i:iW n name
t-mi Cs2a:iW v respond to a name [[case?]]
tez-mi Csa:iW v call (by a name) [[case? should follow causatives]]
sau-mī Csa:iW v name, bestow a name
míj N:W >əi n busybody, meddler
tez-míj Csa:W >əi v meddle, intrude (into others' private business)
mījep N:S v journey, travel afar [Ayāsthi mêıeṅ; latterly compounded with ep, perhaps to give the stem more substance or distinction from 'name']
mjōliju.|n N2:W >ou n trust in one who doesn't deserve it [negative]
tez-mjōliju.|n Csa:W >ou v betray, violate the trust of
mlāi.|n N2:W >ei adj bad, spoilt, rotten [negative of lāi]
mlēitə N2:sW n storm; (as adj) stormy
mlejou.|n N2:S adj unskilled, noobish [negative of lejou(n)]
mlou.|n N2a:W n ice
t(ou)-mlou.|n Csa:W v freeze
mloutə N2a:sW adj slick, slippery
mňim conj or; ... or ... among other possibilities; (preceding a single argument) for example, among others, perhaps
moči N:iS v count [Ayāsthi mòtşeıeṅ]
mo.ř|d N:W >a n person
mōřjouk N:W n business partner
mořkəilkə N:sW n scribe
mořnun N:W n traveller
mořṗhotu.|n N:S n lecher, dirty (old) man
móřžei.|n N:W n baker [extra ř by analogy with agentives]
mot N:M >a n heart (as a physical organ), (pos.) middle, inside
tez-mot Csa:M >a v beat (of the heart)
mot N:W >a n (period of) time; (as adj) past, elapsed
t-mot Cs2a:W >a v pass (of time)
tez-mot Csa:W >a v reckon time; recur at regular intervals; beat (rhythmically), follow (a rhythm, a metre) (of music or poetry) [[case]]
mōt N:W >a n (sgtv.) heartbeat; instant of time (or mixed caudal: the singulatives of the two words mot have become confused)
motsa N:S n an indoors location, (pos.) inside (a building) [neg. of otsa, positional by influence of mot]
motsa N:S n rib cage
mōtsa N:S n (sgtv.) rib
muči N:iS v complain [Yād mujin 'protest']
mumij N:S n fool
mumijat N:M >e adj foolish, silly, daft
my.ř|r N:W >o adj thin
məi.|n N:W >e v rove, wander [stem reformed, əi not being a typical sW termination]
məij N:W <i n cow, female bovine
məiľ N:W >e v read
məi.ř|r i:W >i n ancestry, lineage; genealogical record
mə̄i.ř|r i:W >i n ancestor
oul-mə́i.ř|r V:W >i v descend from [[case?]]
məi.s|z N:M >e n father
mək.|t N:S n younger sibling: tni mək 'younger brother', umy mək 'younger sister'
na i:S v see
Na:S v/s be used to, be in the habit of: nə-ná 'habitually, usually'
nafpoumva Na:S n (both) cheeks
ij-nafpoumva V:S v puff out the cheeks; blow from the mouth
nalef Na:W <ə n domestic animal, head of livestock
nalefra Na:S n herd of livestock
náňi N:iS v cut finely or carefully [Ayāsthi náņeıeṅ]
napei.|n Na:S adj red
nat N:W <o adj grey ['ashen'; first < na]
nek N:W <a n god(dess)
nekra N:S n religion = set of beliefs and practices (not a very common word)
nello.ř|r Na:W >a n horse
nerou.|n i:W adj marvellous
neřtə Na:sW adj blue ['sky color' < na + raþe]
néřtə N:sW n cloud; (as adj) cloudy, overcast, dim (of ambient light), gloomy [+ 'sky']
nezzə Na:sW n shape, form [first < deverbal n. of na]
niri N:iS n woman
niřřun N:W n mistress (as term of respect) ['governing woman', with irregular vowel loss]
noji (not used independently): ni-noji 'in vain, to no avail'
nou.|n Na:W n common cold, (as adj) sick with a cold
nōu.|n N:W s (volitional future auxiliary)
nòumo.|n Na:S >a adj brown [the two diphthong rule operated here]
nùmme.ř|r N:W <a n fair share; (frequent default meaning) half
tez-nùmme.ř|r Csa:W <a v share fairly, distribute
numpein N:W n onion [< nono + apena]
nun N:W v/s go
nunzei.|n N:W adj fast, swift ['good progress' < nona + zę]
nuňkə N:sW n part, piece, section
nuňke.ř|r N:W <əi n collection, compilation
nəij N:W <i n leaf
ňei adv then (apodosis of a conditional); (with an indicative clause) therefore, it follows that
ňna N2:S n mother
ňvi N2:iW n a k. of bread [E'át njvi]
odi V:iS n salt: at-odi 'unfortunate' (of a turn of events)
ōdi V:iS n (sgtv.) grain of salt
ofpi V:iW adj vast, cavernous [+ ]
ofpikə V:sW n great hall
oj V:W <y v press, push; clamp together [[derivs?]]
òṗi V:iS v conquer [Ayāsthi ġòpfieıeṅ]
ošivo V:S n day off
ot V:W >a v/s come; come to pass, happen, be the case [[probably also an auxiliary]]
ot V:W >a n chill, draught of cold air, (as adj) chilly
tez-ot Csa:W >a v walk; (especially) go out for a walk, promenade
oul-ót V:W >a v shiver, have chattering teeth (due to cold)
otsa V:S n the outdoors
otsai.ř|d V:W n era, age, span of history; significant historical event; memorial to past deeds; matter (in the sense in "Matter of Britain/France/Rome/..."), genre, setting (of a work of literature)
ottun V:W n infant, newborn [< ôto + aðono]
ou.|n V:W n grass (mass)
ōuni V:iS n (sgtv.) blade of grass [ōu is the regular reflex of the Mavakhalan efʼ; reinterpreted as a singulative]
oukla Va:S adj sober; levelheaded, sensible [negative of kola]
òul V:W <u v/s take (s-verbal use to introduce objects, and to render senses such as 'bring') [[point to grammar]]
oum V:W n fly
oumňizy V:yW n moth
oumro V:S n decomposing corpse [from adj. with sense 'full of flies'; irregular stem extension loss]
ounza Va:S v be so depressed or shocked as to be listless
oul-óunza V:S v use up the last of, finish off (a resource)
òu.ř|r V:W v swim
outva adv apart [negative of têva]
ov V:W <y v consecrate, hallow, reserve or set aside for religious purposes
pa ia:S adj straight, taut, stretched out
t-pa Cs2a:S v straighten, stretch (intr)
tes-pa Csa:S v straighten, stretch (tr)
pa.s|z Csa:W >e v attack [stem in z analogical] [[derivatives?]]
pavha ia:S n spine, backbone
pepsa Cs:S n judge, deem, consider, think (that s.t. is a particular way) (stative) [[case?]]
pet Cs:W <əi v die (of com, at the hand of geno) [sense influenced by pəit]
pettə Cs:sW adj deadly, fatal
pfə̄p Cs2:W v speak distinguishing ṗ ṗh from p ph (used in derision)
pī.|n Cs:W >əi v fear, be afraid of, (nominalised) fear
tes-pī.|n Csa:W >əi v scare, frighten, menace
pīmou.|n Cs:S adj daring, brave, valiant
pinfep Cs:W <ə adj swollen [+ 'large']
t-pinfep Cs2a:W <ə v swell
pīrou.|n Cs:S adj nervous, skittish
pītša Cs:S n sleep paralysis
pjá Cs2a:S n crag, outcrop, promontory, headland; preference, advantage, argument for, point in favour of, (as adj) preferred
tes-pjá Csa:S v argue (especially about which of a set of alternatives is better)
sau-phjá Csa:S v favour, prefer (dat, thing favoured over geno)
plažža Cs2a:S v feed [Kozado plazeža]
plažžəi.s|z Cs2a:M >e n food (cf. het, a more common word)
pmou.|n Cs2a:W n smoke
tes-pmou.|n Csa:W v preserve (food) by smoking
pmōu.|n Cs2a:W n (sgtv.) puff or wisp of smoke
pmouň Cs2a:W n smokehouse
pun Cs:W v bite
puň.ei|n Cs:S n turnip
puňňa Cs:S n root cellar
pəi.ř|r Cs:W >e v press on despite overwhelming odds or with a lost cause
pəit adv to death, to pieces, to exhaustion, so as to be destroyed or destroy it(self) [sense influenced by pet]
ṗei.|n Cs:W adj low, shallow (in extent)
ṗidij Cs:S >əi n fingernail, toenail
ṗle.s|z Cs2a:W <a v send; give signals; leave alone, disregard
sau-ṗhle.s|z Csa:W <a v have s.o. (acc) convey s.t. (com); direct, give instructions
ṗlē.s|z Cs2a:W <a v (sgtv.) signal, cue
ṗnap Cs2a:M >e adj low, near the ground (in position) [second < ape]
ṗhotu.|n Cs2:S v fondle, grope (tr); steel oneself, psych oneself up (intr)
ṗhoun Cs2a:W v put, set, place, lay
ṗhy Cs2:yW adj fat, swollen
t(a)-ṗhy Csa:yW v swell, grow fat
rafei.|n Cva:S n (pos.) role or function: ou-ráfei 'as' (essive, permanent), et-rafei 'becoming' (translative), raf-rafei 'as' (temporary), nə-rafei 'instead of'
t-rafei.|n Cs2a:S v become
teř-řafei.|n Csa:S v serve as; replace, be substituted for (usually temporarily) [[case?]]
rāh Cva:W n anus [rāu + xo with irregular diphthong simplification]
ra.s|z Cv:W <o v play music
rā.s|z Cv:W <o n (sgtv.) tone, note
rat Cs:W >e v hear; smell, taste in the air, perceive at a distance by any sense other than sight: at-rat 'supposedly, so I hear'
rat.əiř|r Cv:S n head
Rattu.|n Cv:W pn Rathedān
rāu.|n Cva:W >ou n hole [related to the vialis]
teř-řāu.|n Csa:W >ou v bore a hole
ráu.|n Cva:S n fuzz, fluff; (as adj) fuzzy, wooly, fluffy
rāuty Cva:yS n mouth [second component < tô(t)]
ij-rāuty V:yS v blather, chatter, chinwag, talk idly or valuelessly
razəi.s|z Cv:M >e n music
rettə Cs:sW adj supposed, so-called, putative (cf. at-rat)
rij.|v Cv:S >əi n fox
rolkə Cv:sW n face, (pos.) front part or side; temporal subsequence: il-rolkə 'forwards, ahead'
oul-rólkə V:sW v stare down, overcome or intimidate in a confrontation
rouň Cva:W n summer pasture, field in the mountains
ru|.n Cv:W n plain
run Cv:M v (stands in for p-verbal forms of the copula); rule, govern, have control or dominion over; drink (cf. àvəi), eat (especially of a side dish), have a taste of
runza Cv:S n kingdom, country
rỳlau.|n Cv:S >ou n wife
rylly Cv:yW n husband
rỳpi Cv:iS n jerk, dick, unlikable sort
rỳpijat Cv:M >e adj unlikable, inconsiderate
řat Cva:W >e n fist bump (used as a praising gesture, roughly as we use a pat on the back) [Kozado raþ]
teř-řat Csa:W >e v perform the řat gesture
řatša Csa:S v locate, pick out [Kozado raþeža]
řazva Cv:S v botch, bungle, make a mess of, fuck up [[case]]: řazva! (not-too-vulgar) exclamation of despair at things going wrong [ř intensive]
řijrou.|n Cv:W n trick (especially a subtle one); (as adj) sly, wily, cunning
teř-řijrou.|n Csa:W v trick craftily, outwit
řəisi Cv:iS n chair, seat [?]
řəispev Cv:W <a n a k. of tall stool [second component < hapava, losing the h]
sāu.|n Csa:W >ou v/s give [[point to grammar for lexical uses]]
sot Cs:M >a v/s start, begin
sot Cs:W >a n dust, dirt, grime; (as adj) dusty, dirty
t-sot Cs2a:W >a v get dirty; sit neglected, gather dust
tes-sot Csa:W >a v/n neglect, ignore; leave out, exclude; (nominalised) (pos.) exclusion, exception: nə-tessot 'except (for)'
sòu.|n Cs:W >au adj tame, broken (of animals) [deverbal noun of sovʼ]
tes-sòu.|n Csa:W >au v tame, break (of animals) (tr)
sōuro.|n Csa:S adj worthy, sufficiently valuable
syř Cs:W >o adv/n tomorrow
syřsij Cs:S adv/n the day after tomorrow [perhaps analogical]
səij Cs:W <i v wash, bathe
šilu.|n Cs:S n set of teeth; gate
šīlu.|n Cs:S n (sgtv.) tooth
šiṗei.|n Cs:S n a short-legged breed of dog, ~dachshund
šiviri Cs:iW n dog [+ 'leg'; by contrast with šiṗei.|n. the shorter form was lost due to potential confusion with the definite article]
ta Csa:S s (used with separable p-verbs)
tairo.|n Cs:S adj cowardly
teřtə Cs:sW adj sexy, hot, erotic
te.s|z Csa:W <a s (used with separable p-verbs)
tij Cs:W >əi v pull
tiřsi Cs:iW v sit (usually dynamic) ['pull (up) a chair']
tly Cs2:yW n table
tni Cs2:iW n elder brother
toc Cs:W n beak (of a bird) [imitative]
tocjy Cs:yW n nose ['beak of skin']
ij-tocjy V:yW v smell, sniff
tohta Cs:S n frame (architectural element) [< tô(t) + xata]
tol Cs:W >a n the moon (treated as a proper noun wrt definiteness)
topi Cs:iS n penis
tóra.|n Cs:S adj safe, situated away from or protected against dangers [Ayāsthi tóraṅ]
tòuvah Cs:W <o n snail ['house-on-back' < t(ôt) ov-voxa]
tsyt Cs2:W n house [a fusion of the Mavakhalan independent and stem forms]
tu.|n Cs:W n hand
tun i:W v choose, pick, select
tusfo Cs:S v have mastered, be completely familiar with, not need to think about
ty Cs:yW n lake
tyh Cs:W n home [Ayāsthi tỳh]
tyř adna slightly, a little
tyvəi.s|z Cs:M >e n meat ['eat-stuff']
tȳvji Cs:iW n military camp ['war home']
təicma Cs:S v buy
təitkə Cs:sW n road, street, way [< teþo 'wide' + -kə]
thei.|n Cs2:W adj (an)other, else, (a) different
thevi Cs2:iS v/adj be guilty, feel remorse; (as adj) guilty, remorseful [Yād tevin 'sin']
tholči Cs2:iW v shine like the moon [Yād toljin (but still recognizably related to tol)]
thòul Cs2a:W <u v utterly defeat, pwn (informal to slightly vulgar) [< atoxôvla with irregular loss of initial material]
u conj and (not used to conjoin clauses: for that use ȳi)
um V:W v gamble; simulate, mock up, model
tez-um Csa:W v place a bet
ij-um V:W v demonstrate, explain by working through an example or simulation
ūm V:W n (sgtv.) bet, wager
umy V:yS n elder sister
V:W v fly
uňkōtəi . (negative optative) [cf. kótəi]
vah Cv:W <o n back (anatomical), (pos.) rearward part or side, temporal antecedence: il-vah 'backwards'
vaihy Cv:yS n group of pines
vāihy Cv:yS n (sgtv.) pine (tree)
vap Cv:W >e n root
vař conj either/or (strongly exclusive); (preceding a single argument) only, just
vařkə Cv:sW n (one)self
vau.|n Cv:W >ou v err, do s.t. wrongly [[complement type?]]
véfi Cv:iS v execute, put to death [Ayāsthi wéfeıeṅ 'punish']
vel Cva:W <a v/s lie, recline; rest (especially in a position); sit (in some static uses)
vellou.|n Cva:S adj tired (from effort)
venza Cs:S v pray
vi Cv:W >ə n switch, rod, flogging device
ij-vi V:W >ə v flog, whip
oul-ví V:W >ə v threaten (with flogging, or generally)
vī Cv:W >ə n (sgtv.) one blow with a switch
vot Cv:W >a v stab
votkə Cv:sW n dagger
vumi V:iS adj yellow
vundou.|n V:W v rape ['steal purity' or '~ a girl']
vunna V:S v watch or perceive secretly, spy, eavesdrop, surveil; watch voyeuristically ['steal sight' < womo + na]
vȳi.s|z V:W n wind [deverbal < wôś; z probably from the mass nominaliser]
vyli Cv:iS n land
vys adv later, afterwards
ydy V:yS n eye; vulnerable spot
t-ydy Csa:yS v wear out (of a part of something)
ij-ydy V:yS v look, gaze, peer
ydyvat V:M >e adj vulnerable
ȳi conj and (conjoining clauses; otherwise u)
ylka V:S v forget
yľ V:W >o n (expanse of) ivy
ȳľ V:W >o n (sgtv.) ivy vine
yľ V:W >o adj rich, fatty (of taste); intriguing, scandalous, making good gossip (of affairs, talk), (especially) salacious, bawdy
sau-vȳľ V:W >o v season (food dat) (irregular hiatus-avoidance, to preserve root integrity)
ypi V:iS n ~household deity (the domain need not be a household, but can be e.g. a significant outside area)
yt V:W >o adj new, young
zàil Cv:M n butter
zakhə adv then, and then [< za-xexe 'after that'] [[mention?]]
zarou.|n Cv:S adj drunk
Za.ř|d Va:W >e pn the upper Rathedān, south of Zophīs [Kozado ze ado]
zařňa Cv:S n tavern
zaty Cva:iS n greensward, lawn, grassy part of a piece of property
zei adv well
zékla Cva:S n subject, one ruled over; attendant, servant, retainer; ~vassal; peasant, member of the working class [< sgtv. žzakalas, whose simplex was lost]
zékpi Cva:iW n king [with augmentative]
zem Cva:W <a n the sun (treated as a proper noun wrt definiteness)
ze.s|z Cva:W <a v plough [stem in z analogical]
ziji Cv:iS n uncle
zijy Cv:yS adj hostile, bellicose, warlike
zum Cv:W v guard (a person or location), escort
zyk Cv:W >o v think ill of, look down on, dislike (especially of a person)
zyzma adv clockwise
zəhra Cv:S v love
t-səhra Cs2a:S v fall in love
zəij Cv:W <i n town
zəm Cv:W <i n mud; (as adj) muddy [Kozado zima, with irregular lowering]
žéi.|n Cv:W v bake bread (specifically) [backformation from móřžei]
žéiň Cv:W n bakery
žekhori Cv:iW v worship [Ayāsthi ʒèchoreıeṅ]
že.s|z Cva:W <a v rut, be in heat (of animals), (nominalised) oestrus
žijy Cv:yS adj good, close (of e.g. friends, companions); familiar; good old
t-šijy Cs2a:yS v get to know, bond with [[case?]]
žó Cv:S n sword [Ayāsthi ʒēó]
əij V:W <i v/s use (limited lexical s-verbal use to introduce instruments) [[point to grammar]]
əijkə V:sW v lie, speak deceitfully
əijkə V:sW n animal (particularly wild or exotic)
əijkmat V:M >e n zoo, exhibition of exotic animals
əiřna V:S v scratch
əiřnakə V:sW n claws
əiřza Va:S v want, desire [[derivs?]]
əit V:W <i v hold, grasp [[derivs?]]
ə̀itnə V:sW n rain ['cloud falling' < eþ + ǵne]
ə̄itnə V:sW n (sgtv.) raindrop
əizim V:S n swamp [Kozado ezim]